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Full text of "Annual message of Governor Henry Watkins Allen, to the Legislature of the state of Louisiana : January, 1865"

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JANUARY, 1865. 




Executive Office, \ 

Shreveport, La., Jan. 16th, 186$. ) 

Gentlemen of the Senate 

and of the house of representatives i 

You have assembled again, in regular session, for the purpose of transacting 
the business of the Commonwealth. During the year that has elapsed since . 1 naa 
the pleasure of meeting you, very important events have transpired. Many Dwoay 
battles have been fought with varied success— many valuable lives have been otteiea 
up on the altar of our common country. The war has raged with unabated tury, 
yet our troops, with a few recent exceptions, have been everywhere ^P™™* 
and the armies of the Confederacy are to-day well organized and are still tonma 
able Divine Providence has blessed the land with plenty, while that terrible 
scourge, which often in our climate decimates whole cities, has been but partially 
felt Our own queenly metropolis, though cursed with the presence of an insolent, 
thieving vandal foe, has yet been spared the visitation of pestilence; and Louisiana 
has perhaps lost fewer lives in a year of battles than she has often lost in a summ jar 
of the fever. In this department, although our people have suffered much trom tne 
wicked raids of the enemy, we have no reason to complain. We should not murmui, 
for our arms have been victorious in an eminent degree. The enemy nave Deen 
driven out of the Attakapas parishes, and are not now seen on the right bni« 
the Atchafalaya. Although many of our farmers have suffered fefKW^^ 
from the late planting caused by invasion, we still have corn enough m Louisiana 
for two years' subsistence. With grateful hearts we should thank Him, who rules 
the destinies of the universe, for this plenty in the land. 

Since your last session we have been called to mourn the loss of many ot our 
best citizens. Henry Johnson, once Governor of Louisiana; a cotemporary 01 
Clay, and Webster, and Calhoun, died at his home in Pointe Coupee, fullot years 
and full of honors. Pierre Emfle Bonford, Associate Justice of the bupreme 
Court, after a brief illness, died at Alexandria, exiled by war from home ana 
family He was a finished scholar, a thorough and very learned lawyer and junsr, 
and a devoted patriot. His singularly pure, candid, genial and gene rous naturo 
won the love of all who knew him. I took him from the army and placed him on 
the bench. In his death the State has suffered irreparable loss. Henry Marshall 
and Benjamin L. Hodge, the one succeeding the other in Congress, have also 
departed this life. Both were distinguished for their sterling integrity and great 
patriotism. Your own body has also lost one of its brightest ornaments, in the 
death of Preston Pond, Jr., Senator from East Feliciana. On the battle held 
death has stricken many a shining mark. Generals Polk, Mouton, and Stafford 
have fallen fighting gloriously for their country. Their memories are embalmed m 
the hearts of all Louisianians— a nation's tears will flow for them— their graves will 
be hallowed ground. Armand, and Beard, and Clack, and Canfield, and 
Shields, and Bell, and Winans, and Walker, and Taylor— all fell a* fall the 
brave. I would recommend that a few acres of the battlefield of Manshe!d be 
bought by the State, and that a monument be erected Ho the gallant Mouton 
and his brave comrades, who fell there in defence of their country. 


*J I respectfully re'er you to the report of the Hon. B. L. Defreese, State Treasurer. 

^for much valuable information. At your last session you appropriated the sum 01 
^11,043,630 dollars. I have drawn from the Treasury 6,247,979 do lars, 1«*™S » 
^ balance of appropriations unexpended of 4,794,651 dollars. You will s«e that tntre 
"** is in the Treasury, of all funds, 3,227,369 dollars. 

5, , 
C..3 us\c*r 

I would also invite your attention to the report of Col. James C. Wise, Quarter' 
Master General, by which you will perceive that a very large proportion of tli« 
above expenditure is represented by valuable stores, advancing in market price, and 
more available than Treasury Notes to meet the future wants of the State. Ac- 
companying this Report will be found a tabular statement of all the property now 
on liand acquired for the State during the past year. It consists of cotton, sugar, 
subsistence stores, drugs and medicines — all of which have been paid for — amount- 
iflg in the aggregate to $5,510,000. 

As authorized by your Act of last session, the Treasurer has prepared and issued 
three hundred thousand dollars in Treasury notes of one dollar and fractions of a 
dollar. This well-timed supply of change has proved a great relief to the public, 
at small expense. The object of the law has been accomplished most admirably, 
eince all local and corporation small notes have been withdrawn from circulation. 

For a statement in detail of the Finances of the State, I refer you tc the report 
of the Hon. H. Peralta, Auditor of Public Accounts. You will perceive that the 
State of Louisiana owes, in round numbers, nineteen millions of dollars. Under 
your recent Act authorizing the sale of six per cent, bonds, I have had occasion to 
sell only to the amount of 571,940 dollars, all at a premium of ten per 
centum. The proceeds of these bonds have been applied to draw in State Treasury 
Notes. The Confederate Government owes the State about four millions of dollars, 
expended for military purposes. I have had the accounts and vouchers properly 
arranged and classified, and have placed them before the Hon. Thos. C. Kennedy, 
Comptroller of the C. S. Treasury at Marshall. As soon as they are examined and 
adjusted, they Will be forwarded to Richmond for payment. 


You authorized and instructed me at your last session to raise four companies 
of mounted men, which, joined to the six companies already in State service, were 
to form two battalions of State troops, whose duty was plainly prescribed. I 
raised, armed and equipped the companies, organized the battalions, and placed 
them at once in the field. At that time the enemy had arrived at Natchitoches, in 
their advance up Red River valley. I ordered the battalions, commanded by Lieu- 
tenant Colonels H. M. Favrot and Ben. W. Clark, to report to General Taylor 
instanter. Promptly obeying, they shared in the hard fought battles of Mansfield 
and Pleasant Hill, and acquitted themselves gallantly as good and efficient troorjs. 
Although State forces, I kept them in C. S. service, doing constant and heavy duty 
in Lower Louisiana until the 26th day of July last, when they were regularly mus- 
tered into the C. S. Army, and turned over to the General commanding this De- 
partment. The two battalions have since been consolidated, and now form the 
eighth regiment of Louisiana Cavalry, numbering eight hundred officers and men. 
Composed of excellent material, I doubt not that this corps will prove very useful 
to the Department, and much more efficient by being thus transferred. As the State 
had no depots of corn and provisions, no forage, and inadequate transportation, it 
was incurring very heavy expense. I cannot speak too highly of the bravery and 
good conduct of the "Guard;" they have performed their duty nobly wherever 
assigned. For the military organizations and operations of the State troops, and all 
the details incident thereto, I respectfully refer you to the concise and able report of 
Brig. Gen. T. G. Hunt, A. & I. G. 


The sum of five hundred thousand dollars was appropriated by you for the pur- 
chasy of medicines for the families of soldiers. To obtain enough to make the d;S- 
tribution contemplated by the Act Avas found impracticable. I therefore established 
a Dispensary at this place, from which every portion of the State has been supplied 
v aa far as possible. Every parish has, I believe, derived benefit from this Dis"-* 
pensary. To none has medicine been denied. To the poor and destitute it haA'sjJ $ 
been given "without money' and without price." For a statement of the affairs of";" 3j» 
this establishment, I respectfully refer you to the report of Surgeon General Amzf' 
Martin. You w i 11 see- that h*» %s furnished to citizens of the State medicines'; 

at about one-third of the market price here, to the value of $274,972 ; that he has 
distributed for charitable purposes $13,790 worth; and that the nett profits for five 
months amount to about $50,000, all of which has been paid into the State Trea- 
sury. Although my agents have been very active, they have succeeded, at great 
personal risk and labor, in keeping the Dispensary only partially supplied. I have 
found it exceedingly difficult to procure medicines for the people, as the enemy took 
a maliguant pleasure in destroying all drug-stores in their march through the lower 
portion of the State, and by a refinement of cruelty, have declared all medicines 
contraband of war. Notwithstanding all these difficulties, I am happy to inform 
you that I have received a large supply from Mexico — amply sufficient for many 
months to come. Every citizen of Louisiana can now be abundantly supplied with 
medicines of all kinds. 


In obedience to the instructions of the General Assembly, practical men were 
employed to examine thoroughly all portions of the State where lead and iron ores 
were thought to exist. Traces only of lead ore were found in several places, but 
not in sufficient quantities to justify any outlay whatever for the necessary ma- 
ehiuery to work and smelt the same. The parishes of DeSoto, Sabine, Bossier, 
Claiborne and Bienville have iron in large quantities. Upon subjecting specimens 
of ore from these parishes to the proper test, they Avere found to be so refractory, 
that it was not deemed advisable to prosecute the matter further. I thought it 
more prudent, too, in the unsettled condition of affairs, to establish a furnace, (which 
is a great undertaking,) at a more retired and secure place. ' I therefore sent Lieut.- 
Ool. E. Miltenberger, A. D. C, to Texas; and, after thorough examination, purchased 
one-fourth of the "Sulphur Forks Iron Works," in Davis county, of that State, for 
fifty thousand dollars. This furnace was erected but a few months since, and is now 
going into successful operation. It will abundantly supply the State with all the 
iron needed. It is situated about ninety miles from Shreveport, and within a few 
miles of water t^syortation. I consider this purchase very fortunate. Already the 
stock is worth double the money stipulated. The Company owns a valuable tract of 
land covered with inexhaustible beds of rich iron ore. The buildings and machinery 
are of the most substantial kind. The "Works" are managed by a Board of five 
Directors, two of whom are appointed by the State of Louisiana. I refer you to 
the accompanying papers for full particulars respecting these valuable works. 


When entering upon the duties of my office, I found the currency of the State 
very much depreciated. Farmers, merchants, butchers, bakers, mechanics, all re- 
fused to take it. Notwithstanding it was well known that the State was amply 
able to redeem her circulation, still her paper was in bad repute, and its exchange- 
able value daily declining. Much concerned at this, I earnestly sought a remedy. 
After mature reflection, I determined to establish a State Store, to sell cheap goods 
to the public, and to take payment in our depreciated currency. This has served a 
double purpose. It has drawn in from circulation a large amount of State notes, 
thus increasing the exchasgeable value of the remainder, and has supplied our' 
fellow-citizens with articles of necessity, at prices comparatively moderate. For 
details of the transactions in this purchase and sale of merchandize, I respectfully 
refer you to the report of C. II. Ardis, Military Store-keeper. You will perceive 
that he has paid into the Treasury, from proceeds of sales, $425,249 61, be- 
sides giving to destitute wounded soldiers, to orphans and to widows, goods to the 
value of $22,159 50. In addition to this, you will see that goods to the value of 
$87,326 19 have been transfered to the several State departments, and that army 
supplies, ordnance stores, &c, to the value of $627,816 60 have been turned over 
to the Confederate Government, making the transactions of the State Store since 
its inauguration on the 30th of June last, amount to the' gross sum of $1,162,551 90. 
These goods were imported from Mexico, and paid for in cotton, as will appear from 
documents annexed to the-report above mentioned. • All of which are submitted for 
your inspection. 


I am happy to inform you that the Treasury notes of the State ate now much in 
demand, not only in Louisiana, but in this entire department. It is my intention, 
unless otherwise instructed by the General Assembly, to keep up the "State Store," 
to continue the importation of goods, and to sell them to the public at prices within 
a fraction of their cost. Many a wounded and destitute soldier has been clothed, 
free of charge, from this store, while the widow and the orphan have also been sup- 
plied. In dispensing these charities, I have made no distinction. Wounded and 
disabled soldiers from Texas, Arkansas and Missouri have all been relieved — and 
none have been refused. 

To extend the two-fold benefits of this purchase and sale of merchandise, it is 
my purpose, your honorable body approving, to locate three or more branch stores, 
in different towns of Louisiana. The insufficient receipt of goods, the want of 
transportation, my unwillingness to take men from the army to act as store-keepers, 
and the difficulty of giving such orders for the sale of goods at a distance as would 
secure their just, equitable and judicious disposition, are among the reasons which 
have prevented me hitherto from sending them to remote sections for sale and dis- 
tribution. I hope, however, to prove to the people of all portions of the State, by 
the potent logic of facts, that the very exorbitant prices of imported necessities are 
to be accounted for by the greed of traders more than by the actual cost of impor- 
tation. Should I thus incur the ill-will of venal, grasping, insatiable peddlers and 
speculators, I shall be abundantly consoled by the approbation of all honorable and 
patriotic merchants. 


At the last session of the General Assembly, you made large and liberal appro- 
priations for the establishment of manufactories ; and the Executive was invested 
with almost unlimited powers. I trust that your confidence has not been misplaced. 
Having found the State destitute of manufactories of all kinds, I am pleased to 
inform you that there are now in successful operation, the following works : 

Two Turpentine Distilleries. 

One Castor Oil Factory. 

One Cotton Card Factory. 

One Establishment for making Carbonate of Soda. 

Two Distilleries for pure medicinal Alcohol. 

One Eope-Walk, for Cotton Cordage. 

One Foundry, for cooking utensils, machinery and agricultural implements. 

Two Cotton Cloth Manufactories. 

Two Laboratories, for indigenous medicines. 
These works have been constructed under very unfavorable auspices, and have 
succeeded, although, in many instances, we did not have skillful mechanics, nor 
proper tools. I invite to them your attention, with pride. They will soon supply 
the people with all necessary articles. Much credit is due to Col. John M. Sandidge, 
Chief of Ordnanee, for their success. The State has been fortunate in having the 
benefit of his untiring energy and indomitable perseverance. He has acted as my 
general agent and superintendent, while performing the proper duties of his office. 
For information as to the amount of clothing made and distributed to Louisiana 
troops, and the operations of the Cotton Card Manufactory and Rope Walk, I re- 
spectfully refer you to the report of Clinton H. Ardis, Esq., Chief of the Clothing 
Bureau and Military Store-keeper. The business of his department has been 
methodically and successfully conducted. 

I respectfully refer you to the report of Dr. B. Egan, Superintendent of State 
Laboratory at Mt. Lebanon. Although he has labored under great difficulties, he 
has established an institution of which we may well be proud. His success is due 
to his zeal and energy. You will observe that the value of property acquired 
greatly exceeds the amount of the outlay. No further appropriation is required, as 
the Laboratory will soon be self-sustaining. 

The press has been amply supplied with printing paper. 

r < 


I have imported and distributed in tlie State, fifteen thousand pairs of Cotton 
Cards — selling them to the soldiers families at ten dollars per pair. To accomplish 
this, I have had agents in every part of the country. One was sent to His Excel- 
lency, Governor Joseph E. Brown, of Georgia, for a machine with which to manu- 
facture cotton-cards. He very kindly and promptly furnished it, together with 
sufficient wire to make a small number of cards. For this generous act, the State 
of Louisiana will be under lasting obligations to him. The machine was put in 
successful operation at Minden, and made superior cards until the little stock of 
wire' was exhausted. I found it very difficult to obtain wire, and have sent to 
Europe for it. 

Through the indefatigable exertions of my agent, D. A. Blacksher, I have re- 
ceived from Virginia two more machines, with six hundred pounds of wire — enough 
to make a large number of cards — and now at the factory in Minden there are three 
machines, which will soon be in successful operation, with the capacity for making 
one thousand pairs of cards per month. As these machines cannot supply the 
demand, I shall continue to import cotton and wool cards. 

I. promised every lady in Louisiana a pair of cotton cards. This promise is 
nearly fulfilled. The cards will soon be delivered. There are to-day no fair hands 
in the State idle. All are busily engaged in making cloth, first for the soldiers in 
the field, then for themselves. The music of the spinning-wheel and loom is to be 
heard in every farm-house from early morn till dewy eve. It is a glorious sight and 
cheering to the patriot's heart, when the aged mother, with silvered locks, sits by 
the fire-side, lighted by the brightly blazing native pine, (candles being no longer in 
use,) her fair daughters assembled around her, some carding, some knitting, while 
ethers are engaged in that truly graceful task of spinning; all cheerful and all 
happy; though a tear may steal from the mother's eye, as she thinks of her dear boy 
far away, fightings the battles of his country on the banks of the James or the 
Tennessee." God bless the noble mothers of Louisiana ! I was called on 
by an aged matron, who said to me with tearful eyes : "Governor, I have 
eight sons in the army ; I have but one more, my darling little Benjamin. He is 
just seventeen, and now the Captain of the Beserve Corps has sent for him. He 
wants to go, Governor, but I want him to stay and take care of me in my old age. 
But God's will be done! I love my children much, but I love my country more. 
He shall go! He is young and tender — my last hope — but he shall go! he shall 
go !" Gentlemen, with such mothers as these, we must, we will triumph. 


The laws forbidding the distillation of alcoholic liquors fiom grain and the pro- 
duce of sugar cane, have been strictly executed by me. It is believed that not one 
gallon of intoxicating liquor is illegally produced in the State. I trust this law 
will not be repealed during the war. All bread-stuffs, sugar and molasses, are re- 
quired for the army and for destitute families of soldiers. In many portions of 
Louisiana, grain is already scarce. I daily receive appeals for assistance, and every 
surplus barrel will be needed during this and the coming year. 

I would again respectfully urge upon you to prohibit the sale of intoxicating 
liquors in the State, during the war, except for family use and medicinal purposes. 
Put a stop to the retail traffic in whisky and rum. The only man whose death- 
warrant I have had to sign since I have been Governor, was brought to execution 
for murder when drunk. Every criminal now in jail here is suffering the penalty 
of intoxication. You must pardon me, gentlemen, if I press this subject with seem- 
ing pertinacity. I know that it is considered by some unpopular to advocate such 
measures, and that by others it is thought puritanic ; but he who blenches at a sickly 
public sentiment, or wishes to evade responsibilities, in times like these, is not worthy 
the confidence of an intelligent and patriotic people. While I shall dispense public 
charities with a liberal hand, clothe our gallant men in the field, relieve the sick and 
destitute, take care of our wounded soldiers, and support the widow and the orphan, 
I also feel it te be my conscientious duty to strike at vice in every shape and form, 


and to do all in my power, as Governor of this Commonwealth, to sustain the morals 
of the land. The General commanding this department cannot suppress the sale of 
alcoholic liquors unless authorized by you. He and his District Commanders hava 
often appealed to me. Good order and discipline cannot be kept among troops when 
whisky shops are near them. I, therefore, again most respectfully but urgently re- 
quest that you will give this matter your serious consideration. Pass the law, and 
it shall be executed to the very letter. The large capital employed in this traffic, 
will find other and better investments; drunkenness, that scourge of every land, will 
disappear; crime will be greatly diminished ; good order and discipline will be pre- 
served, while the women, our truest and best patriots, will bless you for the act. . 


At the commencement of my term of office, the country was full of lawless bands 
of evil-doers of every character. In order to suppress them, I issued the following 
proclamation : 


I am informed upon reliable authority, that many negro slaves, taken from planta- 
tions on or near the Mississippi river and its tributaries, which are under the control 
of the Federals, or which are abandoned by thuir owners, are brought into our lines 
and there sold by the captors or their agents. This fraud on the rights of the 
owners must be promptly checked and punished. I desire you to arrest every man 
having in his possession a negro thue brought into your parishes in violation of law, 
and to permit no negro bought or hired .from such captors or their agents to leave 
your respective parishes. You will hold the offenders in custody for trial and pun- 
ishment, and retain the slaves subject to the demand of their owners. 

Violations of the rights of property are becoming so common, that it is incumbent 
upon all officers and law-abiding citizens to unite for the protection of society. Our 
State swarms with marauders of all descriptions. Horse-thieves, negro -thieves, 
swindlers and robbers pursue their wicked purposes with impunity. 

As soon as the active operations of the campaign will permit, tne civil authorities 
will be aided .by the military in arresting and punishing all offenders. Until that 
time, I earnestly entreat you to call to your assistance all good citizens to suppress 
and restrain these violations of law and outrages upon private property. 

HENRY W. ALLEN, Governor of Louisiana. 

Executive Office, Shreveport, La., May 20, 1864. 

It has had the desired effect. I sent two active and responsible officers through 
the State with proper orders. Under these orders about five hundred negroes have 
been recovered, and many have already been returned to their masters. While this 
has put a stop to negro -stealing, it has at the same time restored to many soldiers, 
widp ws and orphans, their lost property. I have appointed a commissioner to tako 
charge of these recovered slaves, to hire them for the benefit of their owners, and to 
see that they are well provided for and kindly treated. His office is self-sustaining, 
not taking one dollar from the Treasury. In connection with this matter, I have 
sent the Hon. F. H. Farrar, as commissioner, to confer with His Excellency, P. 
Murrah, Governor of Texas, in order to devise some means by which all persons 
taking slaves into^Texas shall be required to exhibit their titles, and have the"same 
duly recorded; and, also, to aid our citizens in recovering their lost property when 
found in Tpxas. I respectfully refer you to the report of the Commissioner, and to 
the very satisfactory correspondence of His Excellency, Governor [Murrah, on this 
vital and important subject. 


I am glad to state that our patriotic people, and especially the ladies, have taken 
a deep interest in the Missouri soldiers. Our country-women have labored unceas- 
ingly for the relief of these t>rave and veteran troops. I have thought it to be my 
duty to give liberally to these "orphans of the army," without homes, without 
friends, but who always fight on every field with distinguished valor. I deemed it 
proper to issue a circular letter in their behalf. It was promptly responded to, and 
the monies and clothing collected have been forwarded to these gallant patriots. 

'God bless them 1 The cittaena of Louisiana hare adopted them. Tirtj »h«l! thare 
alike with our own soldiers. 


It fills tlie heart of every Louisianian with pleasure and pride to see how well out 
troops have acted. In Virginia, in Georgia, in Tennessee, in Mississippi, in East 
Louisiana, in this Department, everywhere they have nobly done their duty, and 
won fresh laurels upon many a bloody battle-field. The early regiments that went 
to the armies of Virginia and Tennessee have been most terribly decimated, leaving 
but a few small brigades of that gallant host, who went forth with strong arms and 
stout hearts, to battle for their country's cause. The regiments in this department 
have suffered nearly as much in battle and by disease, but have been more fortunate 
in recruiting. 

I have appointed as agents, Moses Greenwood and Geo. W. Ward, to act in con- 
junction with Dr. E. D. Fenner and Mr. T. 0. Sully, in visiting the armies of Virginia 
and Tennessee. Ample means have been furnished them for the relief of every^pk 
and destitute soldier from Louisiana, in these armies. Through my agent, W/I). 
Winter, Esq., $5,000 was given to our returning prisoners at ^Savannah, and $5,000 
to the Louisiana Relief Committee, at Columbus, Ga. I also gave to the Richmond 
Association for furnishing artificial limbs the sum of $10,000. The Soldiers' Home 
and Louisiana Hospital, at Richmond, have been furnished with funds, and the 
destitute sick and wounded soldiers at Mobile have not been forgotten. 

I have appointed Col. H.M. Favrot, Keeper of the Military Records of the State, 
and have sent him to the armies of Virginia and Tennessee to enter upon the respon- 
sible duties of his office. I trust that this appointment will meet with your approba- 
tion. I deemed it my duty to anticipate the action of the General Assembly, in 
^rder that no time should be lost in bringing up the military records of those gallant 
men, who have fought and are still fighting the battles of their country. 

John Bunyan has portrayed, in language that will never die, the troubles, trials 
and tribulations of "Christian," while journeying to the New Jerusalem. Tliis sol- 
dier of the Cross passed the Slough of Despond, through the valley of Humiliation, 
up the Hill of Difficulty, and fought the Dragon Apollyon, shouting with a loud 
voice and saying : "Rejoice not against me, oh ! mine enemy ; when I fall I shall 
rise!" By incessant toil and hard fighting he gained the victory at last, and cross- 
ing the River, entered into the gates of the Celestial City. 

Citizen soldiers of Louisiana! emulate the example of this heroic wan'ior. Halt 
not at the Slough of Despond. With quick time, march straight on. Listen not to 
the delusive promises of the enemy — they are as hollow and as false as hell. Oh ! 
remember the widow and the orphan, whose cries daily ascend to heaven. Think of 
the women of Louisiana who have suffered crucifixion of the soul. Think of the 
torrents of Southern blood shed by Yankee hands — think of the acres of bleaching 
bones — think of the thousands of mutilated forms — think of the burning cities, of 
the devastated lands, of the broken hearts. Think of all these, and let the memory 
nerve your hearts to do or die. 

When the armies of France returned from the late Italian campaign, all Paris 
received them with that pomp and circumstance which can only be displayed in that 
brilliant capital. All that wealth, and taste, and art could do, was brought into 
requisition. Wit, and beauty, and fashion were there, for this was the proudest day 
that France ever saw. The triumphal procession of returning columns, was headed 
in person by the Emperor, the most sagacious and successful monarch that ever 
reigned over any people. Soldiers of Louisiana ! when this war shall end and you 
shall return to your homes, a greater triumph awaits you than that of Paris. Each 
man, the humblest private in the ranks, will be a hero. The garland and the wreath 
shall bxj prepared^-flowers shall strew your paths and lovely women shall shed tears 
for you of joy. Soldiers ! my heart warms to you all. I have had the proud privi- 
lege of sh«arlng your privations and hardships in camp, and your dangers on the 
battle-field. Yott Bball never, never be forgotten. 



1 rwrpwtfully refer you to the report of Col. J. C. Wise, Q. M. General, for a 
detailed statement of provisions furnished to the suffering citizens of the State. You 
will see that there has been distributed 30,792 bushels of corn, 20,182 pounds of 
bacon, 59,965 pounds of flour, 62,195 pounds of sugar, and 700 beeves. My agents 
were instructed to sell to those who were able to pay, and to give freely to tbe des- 
titute, who had no means of paying. Upon the withdrawal of the Federal army, 
desolation and ruin were left behind them. All were stripped of everything valua- 
ble. Every ear of corn, every pound of meat, every living thing in the shape of 
stock, was taken off. This left the parishes of Natchitoches, Winn, Rapides, 
Avoyelles and St. Landry to be supplied — a duty which I have performed to the 
extent of my available means. In them much distress has been relieved, and many 
helpless families have been saved from starvation. I have made sufficient arrange- 
me«te to furnish corn and otlier provisions, in case of need, in these and other 
parrenes. It affords me pleasure to relieve, when in my power, the suffering. Their 
tribulations have been great, but their patriotism has been greater. Some have gone 
astray, and have taken the oath of allegiance to the enemy. Many did so under 
duress. They, deeply regret it, and are now showing by their daily walk that th«y 
are more firmly than ever attached to our cause. They are a good and brave people. 
The}' have been crushed to the earth. They are of us — with us — for us. Let them 
not be alienated and driven off. I respectfully ask your attention to their present 
political status and recommend them to your favorable consideration. 

The sum of two hundred thousand dollars, appropriated for the poor and destitute, 
was placed in the hands of L. V. Reeves and N. D. Coleman. They have impar- 
tially and judiciously distributed it, and accomplished much good. This timely aid 
has gladdened the hearts of many a suffering family. I respectfully refer you to 
their accompanying reports. 


Immediately after the expulsion of the enemy last spring, many citizens were 
arrested by the military authorities and imprisoned, without the benefit of that 
speedy trial guaranteed by the Constitution and laws. It seemed that a reign of 
terror had begun, and that the bayonet was about to rule the land. Taking prompt 
issue with the military authorities, I issued the following proclamation : 


As the Chief Magistrate of the State, sworn to maintain the integrity of her laws, I deem it 
appropriate to renew to her people the assurance that I shall keep that oath, and fulfil that duty 
While doing this I have thought proper to add such suggestions as the occasion demands. 

The presence of armies in our midst, raised by the Confederate Government, commanded by 
officers of its appointment, governed by the rules and regulations it has adopted, and amenable 
solely to it in a military capacity, produces inconveniences which are inevitable, and of which, 
when necessary, a patriotic people will not complain. These inconveniences form a part of the 
price you must pay for your country's independence, and for the liberties you wi:l hereafter 

But that Government is of your creation, and has no legal power beyond that which you have 
conferred upon it. Its duties are strictly defined, and its authority limited by the constitutional 
charter which your representatives have aided in forming, and which you. through your conven- 
tion, have ratified The armies of the Confederate States have no authority or power, except 
what the laws of Congress give them, and that body cannot go be;\ ond the grant emanntirjg 
from Sovereign States. The authority of military officers is therefore the creation of constitu- 
tional laws. They can rightfully do nothing but what Congress has authorized them to do. 
Properly viewed, an army is only a police force on a large scale, whose sole function is to main- 
tain the laws of the lancl, and to protect the rights of the nation. Hence the machinery by 
which it acts ought never to come in collision with the civil laws, or the machineiy of local or 
State governments. Oyer the citizen, or his property, no military officer has any other authority 
than what is given him by law. It is the glory of every realiy great military commander, that 
the civilian is never made to feel the presence of an army as a burden, a nuisance, or a terror. 
Over his troops his authority as given by law, ia necessarily very great. This Is right; but 
beyond the circle of his army the humblest citizen in the land is his equal. 

I therefore earnestly admonish every one whose rights may be violated under pretence of 
military authority, to appeal promptly to the courts of justice. Let every citizen having just 
cause of complaint against military officers, report the same at once to the'grand jury of his 
parish. If arrested and deprived of your liberty, it is your right to havo the cause of your 
arrest judicially inquired into at once, and to be discharged unless found lo be legary detained. 


This writ of Habeas Corpus is alwaya open to every eitieen; to inToke it is his hallowed rights 
and I earnestly request all judges to issue it whenever legally demanded. 

Extended authority has been conferred on the Commanding General of this department. Ha 
has never used that power against a citizen, and is entirely free from any disposition so to use 
it. I know it to be his earnest wish, that every abuse of authority by any subordinate officer 
shall be resisted by citizens under all circumstances, and promptly reported. If there ardacts 
of petty tyranny, annoyance and proscription committed in this department, they will be repro- 
bated by him. beins^ as contrary to his will as they are in contrast with his character. All such 
acts brought to his knowledge, I doubt not, either have been, or will be punished promptly. 

Thus far but one citizen of this State has been illegally and wrongfully exiled, and he shall 
be returned to his home and his family. While I am Governor of the State of Louisiana, the 
bayonet shall not rule her citizens, but they shall be protected at every hazard in all their legal 
and constitutional rights. . HENRY W. ALLEN, Governor of Louisiana. 

Executive Office, Shreveport, La., July 5th, 1864. • 

When the Commanding oeneral of this Department was appealed to, the prisons 
were thrown open, and all not subject to military tribunals were turned over to the 
civil authorities. He has forborne to suspend the writ of Habeas Corpus, though 
such suspension was authorized by Congress. He has carefully avoided con^p.ts 
with civil functionaries and encroachments on civil rights. His profound respecvfor 
the laws of the land, and his eminent love of equity and justice, as manifested in his 
course towards the citizens of Louisiana, are among the traits that distinguish him 
as a safe depositary of power. 

banks' last raid. 

In the month of Marchjast, Maj. Gen. N. P. Banks, of the Federal army, arrived 
at Alexandria with a force estimated at forty thousand men, and a co-operating navy 
of sixty gunboats and 1 ransports, with a legion of camp-followers and speculators in 
their train. He pushed his columns up the valley of Red river, meeting with no 
obstacles until within a few miles of Mansfield, where he found what he did not look 
for — a fight. The gallant Taylor was there, surrounded by the elite of Texas, Ar- 
kansas, Missouri, and Louisiana. The battle was fought, and such a battle! 
History will record it as one of the most brilliant conflicts of the war. Banks & 
Co. were routed, horse, foot and dragoons. They were pursued to Pleasant Hill, 
where another severe engagement ensued, and the "grand army" fled in wild con- 
fusion to Grand Ecore. Here was the most disgraceful retreat of modern times. 
Every transportable article of value was carried off, and the rest destroyed. I satr 
feather beds ripped up — windows smashed in — looms and spinning wheels broken 
in pieces — the rich and poor faring alike. Gen. Banks slept at the residence of a 
highly respectable lady at Pleasant Hill, during his hegira. Upon leaving the house 
of this gentlewoman, his body-guard stole all the furniture, bedding, etc., from th© 
room which this gallant General occupied ! From Mansfield to the Mississippi the 
track of the spoiler is one scene of utter desolation. The fine estates on Cane and 
Red rivers, on bayous Rapides, Robert, and DeGlaize, were all devastated. Houses, 
gins, mills, barns, and fences were burned — the negroe3, old anl young, were car- 
ried off — horses, cattle, hogs, and every living thing driven away or killed. When 
they left the beautiful town of Alexandria, it was fired in many places by order of 
commanding officers. While it was in flames, and the women and children flying 
in terror from their burning houses, the drunken and redoubtable Gen. A. S. Smith 
rode amidst his infuriated myrmidons, and exclaimed with fiendish delight: "Boys, 
this looks like war !" 

It is a sad commentary on human nature, and sickening to the hearts of all hon- 
orable men, to see to what extent the Yankees have carried their thieving propensi- 
ties, and how low they have descended in the scale of common decency. Yankee 
preachers boastfully exhibit on their shelves rare and costly books stolen from the 
libraries of Southern gentlemen. Yankee women are daily seen in the streets of 
Yankee cities and towns, bedecked in stolen silks and bespangled with jewels of 
which their husbands and paramours have robbed the persons of our country-women'. 
Yankee boys drink from stolen silver cups, while Yankee babies cut their teeth on 
stolen silver spoons! As a steamer descends the Mississippi, a Yankee school- 
mistress calls to the commander from the bank to capture her a piano. These or* 
facts — notorious, well authenticated and undeniable. Such arc flu- cJiKptian. mt% 


who are fighting ua J Such the christian women who reeeire the fruits of all the** 

lu order that the world may know, in part, what Louisiana has suffered, and that 
future generations of her sons may recur to these sufferings as a perpetual iucentive 
to hate the Yankee race, I have caused reports of Yankee outrages in the several- 
parishes to be prepared, supported by affidavits, made under the supervision of men 
of great respectability and integrity. These reports when published will comprise 
a mass of information of a reliable and documentary character, interesting to all 
civilized people. 

In perusing this volume of crime and infamy, the very blood will boil in your 
veins. The evidence taken is under oatb, carefully weighed and strictly scrutinized;, 
my instructions having been to learn and record the truths without coloring of 
any kind.. ' . 

One occurrence has come to my knowledge not mentioned in these papers. On 
thfj^treat of Banks last spring, one of his Generals rode to a lady's house and 
asked for a drink of water. She gave him with her own hands a silver goblet full 
of cold water. After satisfying his thirst, the unblushing scoundrel examined the 
cup with the eye of a foot-pad, deliberately put it in his pocket and rode off! Can 
any age, clime or nation show in the dark and bloody annals of war, an act of 
meanness to exceed this theft by a Federal General dressed in full Yankee uniform % 

Orders were issued by their Commanding Generals to take all personal property 
and to destroy what could not be carried off, No christian or even civilized people 
have heretofore pursued this brutal policy. It was reserved alone for the Yankee 
race to sanction and applaud in this nineteenth century, that which shocks the moral 
sense of the christian world. Even when the Czar of all the Russias confiscates 
whole Polish villages, seizes the lands, blots out the very name of the department, 
and exiles the victims of his wrath to Siberia, he respects their personal property 
and allows them- to carry it with them; but the Federals rejoice in destroying all 
they cannot steal- 

A traveller visiting the field of Solferino a few months after the collision of the 
hostile armies there, would scarcely have known that a great battle had occurred^ 
A few fallen mulberry trees, a few rifle pits, and the long trenches that held the 
silent dead, were all the marks of the terrible conflict where forty thousand brave 
men fell. No farm houses were burned, no villages sacked,, no blackened ruins were- 
seen. Two christian nations were contending for the mastery, and their campaigns- 
were conducted by the rules of civilized warfare. Here, how different! To the 
christian stranger I would say y Come and see our blackened walls — our smoking 
ruins — our desolated homes — our demolished villages. Come, oh ! come and see the 
widow and the orphan, robbed by a Yankee General, begging bread from door to 
door. Come and see tender women with their little children flying from the torch 
of the incendiary and the brutal touch of Yankee officers. See the venerable mother, 
seventy years of age, hung by the neck and stripped of her clothing to make her 
disclose where she had placed her own treasure. [This was done by Col. McC aleb, 
of the U. S. Army, now stationed at Natchez,, in his raid upon "Sicily Island," who 
at the same time robbed many young ladies of their jewelry, tearing open their 
dresses and exposing their persons.] Think of all this, ye christian strangers, and 
tell us are we wrong or are we right in fighting these ffends of hell to the last ex- 
tremity I Tell us would it not be right in the eyes of God and man, to arm the 
whole population — to arm every man, woman and child — every free negro and 
slave — and fight these devils with burning hate and holy revenge 1 We are told 
that this world and all that in it is, will one day be destroyed by fire, and that matter 
itself will return to the God who made it. Yet one thing will remain : it is Eternal 
Justice; To the justice of the Great Ruler we appeal, and with His blessing we 
mean to triumph. 

Gen. Banks had emblasoned upon his banners, "Shreveport or Hell." He did not 
reach Shreveport. His legs saved him from hell. It is believed, however, that he 
nrrJl r*aeh the latter pWo — -for it fa prepared for tbo*e who have ebed their brother*' 


t)lood— for the "Devil and bis angels."" 

If the "darlt and sulphurous pit" wa8 paved" with cotton bales, I verily believe- 
that N. P. Banks with his co-partners in trade, Messrs. Mansfield &, Co., of New- 
Orleans, would get up an expedition with government transportation, in order to beg, 
buy or steal from the devil the aforesaid cotton. The disgraceful overtures which 
they have made, and which they are now making, for cotton, are disgusting to every 
honorable man. 

And now the country presents the appearance of the Carnatic as described by 
Edmund Burke, after the terrible raid of Hyder AH upon its plains. You can travel 
for miles in many portions of Louisiana, through a once thickly settled country, and 
not see a man nor a woman, nor a child, nor a four-footed beast. The farm houses 
have been burned — the plantations deserted — the once smiling fields are now grown 
up in briars and brakes, in parasites and poisonous vines— a painful melancholy 
broods over the land and desolation reigns supreme. 


At your last session you provided ample means for the relief of the wounded and 
disabled soldiers of Louisiana. Learning that there were many in the State in a 
destitute condition, I published the following notice : 


Louisiana soldiers, disabled by wounds, or by sickness incurred in actual service, and without 
means of support, are requested to apply to me for relief and assistance. Such applications 
must be accompanied with certificates as to disability, service rendered, and present circum- 
stances. They will all be promptly relieved. 

HLNRY W. ALLEN, Governor of Louisiana. 

Shreveport, La., August 4th, 1864. 

Thus invited, these unfortunate children of Louisiana came forward and it has 
been a labor of love to supply them with money and clothing. No one has ever 
applied in vain, and there are now noneof this class in want of funds, food or clothing. 

Having seen in the Texas papers that the friends of the late Maj. Gen. Tom Green 
Were raising a fund for the widow and children of that lamented officer, I subscribed 
in the name of the State, five thousand dollars, and sent it to the bereaved widow as 
a small tribute to the memory of her gallant and heroic husband. 


Finding that very many citizens living a longdistance from Shreveport, had 
claims against the C. S. Government for property impressed, purchased, taken or 
destroyed, I appointed Hon. A. R. Hynes. of Madison parish, Commissioner of 
Claims. His office has become important, with a large business to transact, requiring 
an assistant at Monroe and at Opelousas. This Bureau is self-sustaining and requires 
no appropriation — a small fe« being charged for collections. I respectfully refer you 
to the accompanying report of the Commissioner. 


In consequence of the great difficulty of communication, I have not been able to* 
do all I wished for the parishes of East Louisiana. I deeply sympathize with our 
fellow-citizens who resi .e in that portion of the Stale, and have sent two of my 
Aids, Lt. Cols. D. S. Cage and T. G. Sparks, to learn their wants and redress their 
grievances. They have been partially supplied with cotton cards and medicines 
through my agents, Messrs. "Winter, Walsh and Neafus, whose report is herewith 
submitted. They have shipped and sold one hundred and thirty-three bales of 
cotton— the net proceeds of which have been expended in medicines and cotton 5 
cards — all of which have been distributed gratuitously, as they cost the State noth- 
ing. These agents have simply been reimbursed for their outlays, without acquiring 
one dollar's profit. 

Dr. Edward Delony was appointed agent to supply that section of the State witb> 
indigenous medicines. His arrangements have been seriously interfered with by tbe- 
raids of the enemy. His report is herewith submitted. 

As empowered by the Act, approved Feb'y, 10th, 1864, I appointed Mr. Hugh* 
H. Connell, collector of taxes, to be voluntarily paid, by persons living East of ttie ; 
Mitsissippi river, and I ncrw submit his report. 


Under the Act, approved Feb'y 9th, 1864, the machinery of the penitentiary, at 
Clinton, has been placed in charge of Mr. Wm, F. Lockwood, to whose report your 
attention is directed. 

1 respectfully refer you to the report of the Administrators of the Insane Asylum 
at Jackson. As this institution had become very much pressed for provisions, I gave 
the Administrators a permit to ship one hundred bales of cotton, with which 1o pro- 
cure the actual necessities of life. I earnestly recommend that you authorize the 
Governor to take such steps as he may from time to time deem requisite to supply this 
Asylum with articles of prime necessity. At present it is a sacred duty which we 
•owe to God and our country, to take care of the poor inmates of this institution. It 
is in a deplorable condition. 

By an act of your last session, the Governor was authorized and instructed to 
raise one hundred and fifty mounted men in East Lousiana, for purposes well defined 
injiaid Act. I appointed Maj. J. B. Corkern to the command of this force, together 
viHK the other necessary commissioned officers. He immediately entered upon the 
duties assigned to him, and notwithstanding every obstacle was thrown in his way, 
succeeded in collecting, mounting and equipping eighty men. By my orders he re- 
ported at once to Col. John S. Scott, then commanding in East Louisiana, and per- 
formed most efficient service under that gallant, meritorious and well tried soldier. — 
For reasons which will be communicated to yourproper committee, I ordered this bat- 
talion to this department, and it is now actively engaged in the front, under orders 
temporarily of Lt. Gen. S. B. Buckner. For further information on this subject, I 
respectfully refer you to the report of my Adj't. Gen. T. G. Hunt, and to the accom- 
panying .correspondence with the Secretary of War. 


I would most respectfully recommend through you, that the planters continue to 
husband all their resources — pay strict attention to their plantations — keep up and 
repair their enclosures and apply themselves to the increase of their stock of all kinds. 
Let their cotton gins be kept in order, and a small quantity of cotton be planted, enough 
with which to pay their taxes and support their families. If not interrupted, I will 
promise to supply them with iron, farming utensils, &c- Let them cultivate the Chi- 
nese sugar cane extensively, and also the plants that can be used for indigenous 
medicines — castor oil bean, poppy, mustard, red pepper, et cetera — all of which are 
wanted inlarge quantities at the State Laboratory. We must endeavor to be as far as 
possible, a self-sustaining people. A beginning has been made. I promise them if 
they will adopt these suggestions, and give me their hearty support, their wants shall 
fillbe supplied. I am now causing to be constructed a very simple machine, which will, 
I think, in a large measure take the place of cotton cards — the great desideratum of 
the country. This machine is simple in construction and cheap in price, and will be 
put at the disposition of all who may wish it. 

Although Louisiana has been invaded by the enemy and most terribly devastated 
— let peace once more visit us, and in a few years our people will be prosperous and 

The historian, Dupin, informs us that the wars waged by France against herself and 
the rest of Europe, continued through twenty-three years. One million, five hundred 
thousand men had perished — property of untold value was destroyed. The nation was 
thoughtby all to beutterly ruined, herpeopleto be crushed, her exchequer totally bank- 
rupt. Yet within nine years after peace the profound and terrible wounds inflicted on 
France were all healed, and their scars entirely obliterated. Thus it will be with us. 
Within less then nine years after peace is declared, a stranger passing through the 
State would not perceive that the iron heel of war had pressed her soil. Commerce 
and the arts will flourish. Smiling fields of cotton, sugar cane, corn and rice, will greet 
the eye in every direction, and wealth and plenty will crown the labors of the bus 
bandman. Think of all this, planters of Louisiana, and bear your burdens cheer- 
fully. I know that your taxes are heavy — that you are annoyed with the collectors 
and impressing officers — but remember this is the price of liberty. The soldiers are 
fighting your battles — you must do your duty at home, and in due season we will all 


reap the rich reward together. Our recuperative energies will rise triumphantly in 
the end. Our flag high advanced will be respected and beloved by all who rev era 
morality and religion — who honor manhood, or respect patriotic women. 


To the English philanthropist who professes to feel so much for the African slave, 
I would say, come and see the sad and cruel workings of your favorite scheme. — 
Come and see the negrO as he is now in the hands of his Yankee liberators. See the- 
utter degradation — the ragged want — the squalid poverty. These false, pretended 
•friends who have taken him away from a kind master and comfortable home, now 
treat him with criminal neglect, and permit him to die without pity. I give you 
good Yankee authority— r one William H. Wilder, a convict in the penitentiary at 
Baton Itouge, pardoned by the President of the United States, and made the agent 
for Yankee plantations. He says the negroes on these estates have died like sheep 
with the rot. On one in the Parish of Iberville, out of six hundred and ten slaves, three hun- 
dred and ten have perished. Tiger Island, at Berwicks Bay, is one solid graveyard. At Xew 
Orleans, Thibodaux, Donaldsonville, Plaquemine, Baton Itouge, Port Hudson, Morganza,^i- 
dalia, Young's Point and Goodrich's Landing, the acres of the silent dead will ever bn the monu- 
ments of Yankee cruelty to these unhappy wretches. Under published orders from General 
Banks, the greatest farce was perpetrated on the negroes. The laboring men on plantations were 
to be paid from six to eight dollars per month, and the women from two to four dollars. In these 
orders the poor creatures after being promised this miserable pittance, were bound by every 
catch and saving clause that a New England lawyer could invent. For every disobedience then- 
wages were docked. For every short absence from labor they were again docked. Jn the hands 
of the shrewd grasping Yankee overseer, the oppressed slave, without' a friend or guardian, has 
been forced to toil free of cost to his new master. I saw a half-starved slave who had escaped 
from one of the Yankee plantations. In his own language he said ''that he had worked hard 
for the Yankees for six long months — that they had 'dockered' him all the time, and had never 
paid him one cent!" This is the sad history of them all. The negro has only changed masters, 
and very much for the worse! And now, without present reward or hope for the future, he is dy 
ing in misery and want. Look at this picture ye negro worshippers, and weep, if you have tears 
to shed over the poor down-trodden murdered children of Africa. 


There is in the City of Pisa, Italy, a master-piece of statuary, called the '"Exiles," sculptured 
from pure Carrara marble, by one of the best living artists. ' It represents the exiles flying from 
the despotism of Italy to America. The husband and wife, with a beautiful child in her arms, 
are represented in the most graphic manner. One foot of each rests upon a rock marked "Italia," 
the other foot is placed upon a rock marked "America." While pressing the rock of America, 
the exiles turn their saddened faces to Heaven, but wiih confidence beaming in their features, ex- 
pressive of hope and joy and future happiness. Oh! how changed ! America was once indeed 
the asylum of the oppressed, the home of all who loved liberty, and fled despotism. But now 
she is driving from her bosom all who dare to use freedom of thought, of speech, or the press. — 
Canada, England, France, Cuba, Mexico, all are filled with exiles from the United States — refu- 
gees from their homes — from Yankee land. Seward has touched the wires and they have had to 
fly — without a charge against them — without a writ of habeas corpus — without any legal redress 
whatever, they have had to hastea to aland of strangers and beg for a place to rest their weary 
heads. The days of Washington have sadly changed, and now instead of that pure and good 
man who was the President of a free and happy people, a satyr sits upon the throne, drunk with 
the blood of martyrs. The future sculp) or will mould with classic art, and fix in dull cold mar- 
ble, not the glory, but the shame of America. 


The castle of Chillon still stands on Lake Leman's shore. The curious traveller is still shown 
the foot prints of Bonnivard. The very chains which bound this wretched man are still to be 
seen. All have read his melancholy story in beautiful verse or elegant prose. When the true 
history of this war is written, the sufferings of our poor prisoners at Johnson's Island, Camp 
Chase, Camp Morton, Alton, Cairo, St. Louis, Forts Delaware, Warren, Lafayette, Pickens, Jack- 
son and Ship Island, will shock the age in which we live, and make all good men shudder at 
"nian's inhumanity to man." The sufferings of the prisoner of Chillon will pale before the ter- 
rors of Yankee cruelty, and the story of Bonnivard will almost be forgotten. When at last re- 
leased, see our brave men returning home ! as they pass throjigh.the Yankee towns and villages, 
they are pelted with stones, and subjected to the rude jeers of a heartless mob. Sick, sore and 
emaoiated, at last they reach their homes, and are often consigned to an early grave. < 
"Their hair is grey — but not with years, 

Nor grew it white 

In a single night, ' 

As men's have grown from sudden fears," 
— but from lOBg confinement within the walls of a cold and damp durtgeon, debarred from tbd 
free air of Heavaa, and tormented by all that a wicked, cruel and vindictive foe «ould invent. The 
all seeing eye of tho Eternal God alone has penetrated the dark recesses of tbe«* Yankee has- 


tiles. Officers ars literally packed into the narrow casemates of the forts, and there, upon short 
allowance of miserable food and bad water, are suffered to die without pity. Out of a number 
of prisoners captured by the enemy from the "State Guard," near Trinity, only two have return- 
ed. They report to me that nearly all are dead. Th ey died as martyrs to our holy cause, and 
victims of Yankee cruelty. 


Gentlemen, when our trials and troubles are ended, — when all our battles shall 
have been "lost and won" — when the soldier shall lay down his arms, and with his 
wife and children return to his now desolated home — when gentle peace shall come to 
blsss this torn, bleeding, and distracted land — the highest honors will be due to 
those who have deserved the most. The private soldiers in the ranks will be the 
first in the affections of the country — the ladies next. I appeal to history to tell us 
where was there ever such self-sacrificing patriotism as rranifested by the women of 
Louisiana. See the high-born and once wealthy lady, educated and refined, and 
raised in the very lap of luxury, now reduced to penury, rather than dwell within 
theJines of the enemy ! See the aged mother, once the mistress of a hundred slaves, 
now sewing for the support of herself and children! See the only daughter of a 
once wealthy planter, or princely merchant, now giving lessons to maintain her aged 
parents ! See the families of the thrifty merchant, and of the honest and intelligent 
mechanic, driven from their comfortable homes into exile, battling with poverty and 
want, while their protectors, their husbands and sous, are in the army ! See all 
these noble women bearing up most cheerfully under every new misfortune, praying 
daily for our sacred cause, and urging their fathers, husbands and brothers to be true 
to their country, to fight on, fight ever, never to despair, never to submit to northern 
despotism — but, if such be the will of God, to die like freemen. 

In other lands there may be women equal to those of Louisiana, but I cannot be- 
lieve it. Throughout the State, the ladies have not only clothed our own troops, 
but have given great assistance to other Confederate soldiers. Sewing societies, 
concerts, tableaux and banquets have all been brought into requisition ; and many 
a brave soldier has reaped the fruits of these patriotic exertions. One venerable 
lady, seventy-seven years old, in the parish of DeSoto, has knit with her own hands, 
one hundred and twenty pairs of socks for Missouri soldiers. Good men tell us, 
and I believe it, that it is highly pleasing in the sight of the All-wise and ever just 
God, to see lovely woman strengthening the arms and ministering to the wauts of 
brave men who are engaged in such a sacred cause as ours. 


It is a grateful duty to notice the course pursued by the Ministers of Religion of 
all denominations in the State and Confederacy. From the beginning of the war 
they have been, as a profession, with few or no exceptions, steady, consistent, calm 
and resolute supporters of our cause. Before secession, they were unknown to polit- 
ical discussions, for they were singularly exempt from that baneful propensity of 
northern preachers, to intermeddle with public affairs, out of which grew that fanat- 
ical crusade against us, our institutions and our rights ; but when the blast of war 
blew in our ears, the clergymen of our States began to manifest and illustrate that 
love of political freedom eminently characteristic of those whom "the truth makes 
free." A goodly and sufficient number of them have joined the army as Chaplains, 
and have done most faithful service, teaching holy precepts, doing most pious deeds 
of charity, rebuking the heedless, restraining the vicious, awakening and vivifying in alia sensa 
of moral obligation — giving comfort to the afflicted, consolation to the dying, and hore to alL 
Of that piety which adorns physical, and heightens moral courage, they have been the industri- 
ous teachers. The seed they have sown, has produced a harvest of good and wholesome fruits. 
Many have taken the field as officers, or privates in the ranks. They have done their duty most 
nobly, and in many instances have sealed with their blood their devotion to their country. 

At home, the clergy have been equally distinguished for their labors, charity and beneficence. 
Many of the comforts, attainable formerly by even those of limited incomes, are denied to them-, 
for their salaries are now paid in a depreciated currency ; but none are heard to murmur. They 
go from their scanty boards in thread-bare garments to their respective churches with greater 
zsal than ever. The sufferings incident to war have opened a wider field of labor to them, and 
they are performing their duties with commendable fortitude. In sections overrun by the enJS- 
mj, &e courage and Bteadfastnegg of our pastors have been especially eonspicudus. Though 
compelled to see fljek, ebcrebes polluted and robbed by a brutal aad ribald Mcriety. or givia t» 


fiames, they have been true to their trust, and rendered efficient help to their flocks. At Alex- 
fftfidria the truly patriotic and heroic priest stood at the door of his church, with sword in hand, 
ready to offer up his life to save the sacred edifice. This is an act of Christian heroism unsur- 
passed in any land. 

While looking for an early close of the war, it behooves us none the less to prepare for its du- 
ration for years. It is indeed wisest for us to act as though war were to be the permanent con- 
dition of our tenure of independence. Preparation for the worst is the best means of warding 
it off; for, if we can convince our enemies of the steadiness of our purpose, and of our resolve 
to use all our resources, we take from them a moral element of strength — the hope of success — 
thus hastening peace. It is therefore our duty to inquire diligently into all our means of making 
war, not only for the campaign of this year, but for a series of years. Our antagonists, with a 
population of twenty millions, have annually about one hundred thousand youths reaching the 
.age for military service, besides an influx from Europe, of men capable of bearing arms, nearly 
equal in number. To a government become despotic, with great armies to execute its decrees, 
these recruits are available. Our resources for replenishing our armies are strictly limited to our 
own population, numbering half that of the enemy. Of fighting immigrants we have none. Of 
our youths, many thousands have nobly anticipated the conscript age by volunteering. After 
the campaign of 1865, therefore, we have reason to apprehend that a scarcity of recruits will be- 
come a serious embarrassment. While this is a powerful motive with our generals to spare the 
lives of our soldiers by shunning indecisive battles, it is also an incentive to earnest inquiry on 
our part, as to any means we have left untried to add to the virtual strength of our armies. 

I have long been convinced that we have in our negro slaves the means of increasing the 
number of available fighting men. They are already, by the wise dispensation which placed 
them under our tutelage, disciplined to labor. They are peculiarly adapted to the endurance of 
our climate. Many of them are skilled in the ruder portions of mechanical work. The most of 
them are good drivers of teams, and all know the use of intrenching implements. In active mil- 
itary operations, immense, manual labor must be done; and where white soldiers are scarce, and 
good black laborers are plenty, it seems wise to employ the latter whenever practicable. When- 
ever a negro laborer can be substituted for a white soldier, a musket is added to some depleted 
regiment. With hundreds of thousands of laborers thus available, it is rank injustice to our 
•chivalric defenders to exact from them that labor which ought to be dona by negroes. 

It cannot be urged that our slaves are all needed to raise food for our people and supplies for 
troops. Before the war, our southern population was greater than it is now, including the army. 
We then produced a surplus of food, and three or four millions of bales of cotton, together ■with 
large quantities of sugar, rice and tobacco. We now need no more food than then, and raise no 
cotton, and but little rice or sugar. All having been mainly the product of sJave labor, it is evi- 
dent that there are now more negro laborers than we actually need for agricultural purposes, and 
that the surplus can well be spared for army use, after making due allowance for those taken 
«way by the enemy. 

In view, also, of the possible calamities of a protracted war, it will be wise to have many 
thousands of negroes thus attached to our armies, mobilized, used to military discipline, habit- 
uated by army labor to action in concert, and thus made ready and ripe for that important step 
which the exhaustion of our armies may necessitate— the arming of negroes. It is the delib- 
erate purpose of the ruling majority of our enemies to prosecute the war on such a scale, and so 
long, as to exhaust our fighting men. In this Satanic game they seem willing to play three or 
four lives of their soldiers against every one of our own, as is shown by the last campaign ; for 
they know they cannot rule over the living white men and soldiers of our country. This horrid 
policy of butchery must be met by the employment of all our resources. Our willingness to 
fight armed negroes against them, when made necessary by their own diabolical and persistent 
malignity, may be taken by them as the sign and measure of our inextinguishable hatred, while 
it will prove conclusively to the nations of the world that we intend to maintain our independ- 
ence at any and every possible cost. If a master may, with the help of his faithful slaves, drive 
thieves from his corn-crib, incendiaries from his cotton-gin, and marauders from his house, why 
may not many masters, helped by their many slaves, act in concert to drive away armies of 
thieves, incendiaries, and assassins? 

There may now be differences of opinion as to the exigency which shall call for this measure ; 
but if we are driven to the wall, there will be none. Each section of the country should be the 
judge of the necessity. While in this department our army is still comparatively full, east of the 
Mississippi the want of troops has turned the thoughts of very many able statesmen, soldiers 
and journalists to the subject of putting negroes into the field. I hope the public mind in this 
State will be prepared for any action of the Confederate States Congress, and that our people 
will be ready for the emergency contemplated. Securing to the army a large number of organ- 
ized negro laborers, appears to be the best possible preparation for this contingency. Should 
you concur in this opinion, I leave it to your wisdom to suggest such legislation as you may 
deem appropriate. 

In the multiplicity of topics necessary to be called to your notice, I should have treated the 
subject of employing negroes in the army with more brevity, but for the capture and publica- 
tion by the enemy of a letter to the Secretary of War, in the concluding paragraph of which I 
expressed the conviction that the time had come for putting negroes in the field. An expression 
<>f my views on this topic was naturally expected ; and having no desire to withhold my opinion, 


in order to give it, I was obliged to state in part the reasons and fec'ts en Which it Was based. X 
am indebted to the peripatetic Yankee general, "who never fought ia battle, for damaging his bai 
cause, by publishing my letter, and making it the subject'of a special wd^r. Tliis redoubtable 
general seems to have been much exercised; for the letter >of the '"Rebel (Governor" lias had the 
desired effect: it has put a stop to conscripting negroes by the enemy i«i his department. Gen. 
Canby tells them if they will run to him fur (protection, they shall not be*ent to the slaughter- 
ipens and butchered anymore! One fact is certain and loatonot be cobcoailed — the enemy fear, 
■ above all things, the arming of our negroes. 

In every battle with the enemy, we hawe been compelled to (meet him tivm %o our one. We 
'have triumphed over him always, and Will continue to do so, when the numbers are anything 
like equal. In one respect, however, he iha's the advantage, lie can and -uVes out-work >is. 
His soldiers are generally laborers or onedhaimes, of strong iimk and muscle, ttocusromed from 
infancy to hard work. Ours are 'different^ they cannot per&wm ftihe Herculean tasks done by 
'"the enemy. Place two hundred thousand able-bodied negroes in tfec as - <m.y, and this difficulty i* 
removed. They will make the fortifications and garrison thena-) While <o,ur white troops fight the 
battles in the field. 

I speak by authority ; I speak the sentiments of the artny, of every (Officer and private, of 
every man and woman in Louisiana, and wow sum up the argniument on this question" If nec< h- 
sary, if the worst should come, perAs&i slavery — pterish the institution for ever — but give us inde- 
pendence; give us freedom now, Aiemeet'orth and forever, from the accursed Yankee station. If 
we are subjugated, the negroes ,are lost to their owners. If We triumph, we can Well afford to 
give freedom to every slave who fights the battles of his country- 

This has now become -a War of eaadnaa>ance, of heavy blow s, and lottg, stout and determined 
resistance. Peace can Mever be made With Abraham Lincoln except of armed intervention. 
This blood-hoiind, like the "dark MokaaaaAa," has deceived his people-^-will Mill 'deceive tht-m 
until the terrible day of retribution comaes.. The time may ico»oa*e-=-is perlteps fo/et iapproadiiaig— 
when we will have to give ittp the insfciitatioo of domestic slavery in order to secfare our indepen- 
dence as a nation. The civilized world is opposed to the name of slavery— -iit prefers (bondage 
under some other name. In Mexico tihey have Peon*-^am Russia Serfs— 'in JSmiglaud, France and 
Spain, Cooleys. The position of the slave in Lomilsiawa as far s«perk>r to !aiay of these ; he is bet- 
ter clothed, better fed, better treated and cared tfor* and in every resjseet a Hrfich happier being. 
Still we cannot convince the world that thqy are Wrong and that We are right. The public mind 
must be prepared for the change. Shall We continue to fight on, in a long protracted war with 
slavery, or shall we give it up and have peace a*d independence ! Lwajtisiawa will rise en masse 
and Say without hesitation,. "We will abolish the institution — we Wila part with skWery Without 
regret—if necessary to gain out independence..;" 


T,n my inaugurat address I informed you tfeat I believed peace wouM he (declared at no very 
distant day. I am still of that opinion. I believe the Wat Will not last rarach longer. All revo- 
lutions must end, and become more bloody as they approach their close. Petoce Will tome when 
we least expect it. It Will come by intervention, and that at no retawte period., that we are 
tired of the war, none will pretend todeny^ All acknowledge the fast; but We arte resolved to 
fight on^te fight it out luntil we are reeogtoI*ed aa a separate, free, and independent sstiofl. 

If there is any man in this Stat© Who for ©fee moment think* of red^hstcujetirta on *ay towns 
Whatever, let me beg Mm* for God's sake, for his country** sake> for his own aakei, toask himself 
these few plain questions : Can Itrusttiiey3ankees,sway^!as*hey^ebya.£a«iaftie8tl tnob? Can 
I trust men who have committed every crime in the decalogue? Oate I shake bands With mur- 
derers and robbers ? Can I sit doWn With thieves, and houf>e-b«rM«!rs, and t&sssKSiiJS/ and break 
bread with. those Who have insulted: my Wife, my mother, any sister? &ov*eVerJ never! ! 
never f ! ! 

Jf the sainted sp kits of those brave "teen, Whoso bodies have been butchered in; this unholy 
war, take an interest in earthly afiaiss, I implore them to visit the piHloWs ot* these" misguided 
persons— if there be any — who in this trying hour Wonld sacrifice tfee independence of their 
country,/ and shriek their protest ifa their unpatriotic ears. What I oh3 what WduM be gained 
by reconstruction 7 If the yankees violated the Constitution for a series of years before 1361, 
will they not do it again / But, it is suggested We will call for a convention of the State*?, aAd 
ask for guaranties! Great God ! Imagine a convention of all the States ! v IThey must of oours'e 
be admitted, as equals. Every northern. State except tlaee has voted for Liitoaln ated his" poltey. 
We all kno'W what that policy is ; it is as dark as- Erebus— as black as Helli It is subjugation 
or death! We once had a Constitution. It was, thought by all good men tube a< saflnaefit 
guaranty; it has. been overthrown, and now a despotism. is inaugurated. What, then,, would, be 
gained by reconstruction 7 Ketliiaig: but political annihilation — nothing bat otter degradation 
and loss of all' your property- Once lay doWn your arms, and then farewell,! &; long farewell to 
all your liberties. Your negroes will be madeyour equals, your land* WiH bedeolare&cocafiseftle, 
and you will' become the slaves of those very hirelings Who are now waging Watf upon - yoUv Ab- 
olitionism, agrarianisjn, and miscegenation, With all their horrid brood, will rale the "eourtaud 
the camp." 

Black men— our own slaves,, are now in the Yankee army and navy ; they WiJI soon faei® their 
congress, in the cabinet in the pulpit, and. on the bench. Are you willing, to live under such a 
gOvomment in any manner, ihany way, in any position whatever? If I were asked, fflRSthete 
any temis on which you wouldconsent to reconstruction, and return to the Oldi Union, my stisvtet 


is emphatically' none! Better fight for four. years longer— aye, better fight for forty years to 
come, than contemplate anything short of independence. 

If there be any who have thought of a convention of the States, to the end that peace .proposi- 
tions might be submitted, i would say, this is«not only unconstitutional and impolitic, but utterly 
■impossible. By the recent elec'tions at'the-north, the democratic peace party has been. crushed. 
Lincoln & Co. "are 1 now in blood stept in -so far, that should they wade no ihore, returning were 
as tedious as go 6 r er." , if it were : possible to assembler a convention of delegates, from all the 
States, it would be a Babel of passion and- confusion — of crimination and recrimination., Peace 
propositions 1 would not for one moment be entertained except on the terms already offered, whicii 
is an insult to every honorable man. But peace will come — itjWill come by intervention. : Tbje 
greaf pOwtifs of Europe are pledged to the, integrity offihe Mexican Empire. If the South 
should be subjugated, the victorious armies of thelN6rth v will march over its ruins to the conquest 
of Mexico. This theyan'kee congress has declared— this the yankee press has published — this 
Mr. Lincoln ha* openly said — this his people applaud— but this the 'European powers will not 
, permit. 

The recent -uMisfot'tuhes which our arms have sustained in Georgia and Tennessee, are cotnpar- 
< atively of a; trivial character; if Richmond even should fall, our cause would 1 not fry any mean's 
-be desperate. One thing is certain — we caii never be conquered. We may be harra'Ssed for 
. years by ' wat, blit We will never be conquered — never! , . . 

I must, Gentlemen , thrduglryou, bid my countrymen be of good cheer. We all have, steadily 
hoped that fhfe war would end — that this revolution would-abate— that the -mountain. top, mjght 
be viewed, and the dove of peace would at last go forth ty return, no more. T Am firmly eon- 

was ■stint tmt to'.give battle. Moses stpod'hard by and held up his hands. . As long as they Were 
up, Joshmt prevailed ; but fri^com-se "of time they became tired,, and fell to his. side. Then Ama- 
lek prevailed. Upon seeing this* Aaroa and Hur came to the assistance of Moses, and stayed 
up his' hands till the going down of the -sun. Joshua prevailed and Israelwas free. Let us all 
ithen rally around the Chief Magistrate of the Confederacy. He is our f Fresident, and this is our 
'fight. He is a;pure patriot. Let us hold up not only /unhands, but thctee of all others in author- 
ity. We will prevail— ^we'will win the -fight — we will be free ! 


I respectfully recommend that youpass amact resuming the collection of all 'State taxes ; that 

. you continue your appropriations 'for the relief of the families of soldiers, and the indigent of 

the State ; thatyou enact a law authorizing theconvicts to be sent to the Penitentiary of Texas 

•for confinement and labor — the Legislature of that State having consented thereto; that you pass 

stringent laws, .punishing with severe penalties all persons who may kidnap, or illegally take 

<away slaves from their owners, and all who ? may aid or abet those so offending, or 'who may buy 

or sell negroes -knowing them to have been unlawfully taken from their owners, or from the 

^agents or overseers of such owners, or from their plantations during their absence. Many of 

our soldiers, who aremow in the field doing their duty nobly, as well-as many refugees, widows 

<and orphans, have suffered heavily .from these vrobberies; that the Governor be authorized to 

.purchase one or more sea-going -steamers, with v which to run the blockade, and that he be 

♦empowered to buy and ship *such»quanti ties of cotton, or other .produce, as will suffice to supply 

>the people of the State with all such staple articles as are now so much needed ; that the Gov- 

■ ernor have full power to call out every able bodied free male capable of bearing arms, not 

already in the C. S. service, at any time he may deem such call necessary for the defence of the 

-State, under such regulations fts he may tliink proper, and that ; none shall be exempt from such 

'duty ; that the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be-required, be 

'appropriated for the purchase or publication of 'School Books, to be distributed amongst the 

^several parishes, as in.your wisdom you shall direct. I have now a series of such school-books 

in course of publication, but cannot supply the 'Wants' of the public in full. The youth of the 

■State must be educated. While'tllie 'war taxes our energies to the utmost, 'we mustinot forget the 

sacred duty parents owe to their children. 'Finally, I recommend pass ^no private bills. 

This is no time -for special legislation. Let all claimants be placed on the same footing. Of even 

general legislation, we need but little-^let thatbelshtirt. The country is atwar*— the whole State 

id an immense camp. 

Since my accession to office, I. have had no recreation. My duties ; as Governor have been very 
arduous. Many a weary day and sleepless night have I spent in the -service of the State. I 
Gould have done otherwise and lived inactive, and at my ewe ; fout I chose a different course. 
In these troublous times I have taken many responsibilities. I 'have dispensed to the destitute. 
to the widbw, and to the orphan, to the wounded soldier and hfs family large sums of money. 
This money has not, -however, been wrung from the people by taxation, but has been put into fee 
Treasury in due course of honorable traffic, giving great benefits to all. The people have paid 
no State taxes. They have been "supplied with medicines and 'cotton cards, with clothes and 
'stationery, with provisions and farming : utensils, and With school books for their children — all 
'without one dollar from the Treasury; for the profits on 'my investments for the State have paid 
•all outlays and expenses. . . 

If it is your desire that I should continue my administration as I have begun it, I wish your 
^expressed approbation. If you do not approve it, I will in future adhere to the strict letter of 


the law, and spare myself a vast deal of toil, trouble and responsibility. I have no ambition 
but to serve the commonwealth of Louisiana. I do assure you, from the bottom of my heart, 
that I shall be the happiest man in this Republic, if during my term I can welcome back to their 
homes every son and daughter of Louisiana. Then, but not till then, will I ask to be relieved 
from duty, in order to repair my broken fortunes; for, having suffered along with many of my 
fellow citizens, and lost all, I must begin life anew. 

I cannot close this message without saying a word in behalf of our fellow-citizens of New 
Orleans; outraged daily by a brutal soldiery, insulted and annoyed by a traitor police, far worse 
than that of Austria — robbed by officers in high station, and swindled by every petty official. 
Under all changes— under every new misfortune, the people of that unhappy city have exhibited 
the most unswerving patriotism. To our soldiers and citizens who have been confined in Yan- 
kee dungeons, the ladies have been more than kind. God bless these noble women! The heart 
expands, and the tear of gratitude flows in thinking of the ladies of New Orleans. Be of good 
cheer my fair constituents. I hear from you often. Your ardent devotion to the cause of the 
South, challenges the admiration even of the enemy. Go on in your good work. Relieve the 
sick, bind up the broken hearts, minister to thewants of those who still languish in the "captive'* 
lonely cell." Visit the tombs of the gallant dead who have died from Yankee cruelty, and place 
love's last offering of fresh flowers upon their hallowed graves ; and then and there renew your 
yows of eternal hostility against their murderers. For these acts of patriotism and devotion , 
you will be thrice repaid. You will receive the blessings of all the good and brave in every 
land. The ways of divine Providence are inscrutable. None can find them out. I commit you 
to His hands. He will not forsake you. We are told in the book of Ezra, that when the chosen 
people of God returned from their captivity, they erected an altar, and assembling around it, 
"wept with a loud voice, and many shouted aloud for joy." You shall meet your friends again. 
They shall assemble around your sacred altars. Your temples which have been made the "den 
of thieves" shall be purified, and on bended knees before the throne of the Great Jehovah, we 
- will mingle together our tears of gratitude, and then with heads erect, and in the conscious pride 
of freemen, we will shout for joy I